# 1, 2024

Air transport security

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_6

Nikolai S. Khersonsky

Ludmila G. Bolshedvorskaya 

Abstract. Reliability is the most important characteristics of any object or product, since it is always important that what the supplier offers and supplies is of high quality not only at the time of purchase, but during the entire period of use. Currently, for the aviation and aerospace industries, for the military-industrial complex, the reliability of products is of particular relevance. This article provides an overview of scientific achievements in the field of reliability of technical facilities and products. Of course, this review is not overall. However, the consideration reflects a significant part of books, monographs and other fundamental materials that have not lost their relevance to the present. The results of the study are a kind of guide to the labyrinth of the most difficult problems of solving reliability problems and methods that can be used to solve them.

Keywords: reliability methods, product quality, objects of aviation, aerospace industries, military-industrial complex.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_24

Nikolay I. Nikolaykin

Elena Ed. Sigaleva

Alexandra L. Rybalkina

Olga B. Pasekova

Abstract. The results of an analysis of the influence of pilot age on injury statistics in civil aviation are described. The proportion of aviation accidents caused by human actions remains the same and even tends to increase. Workers continue to get injured during ground handling operations for aircraft. The authors’ assessment of the various risk factors contribution to ongoing negative events confirms the human factor prevalence. Statistics on the activities of civil aviation was analyzed. Examples of aviation accidents involving general aviation aircraft and medical aircraft transporting patients who required emergency medical care were considered.

It has been shown that there is a peak in the aviation accidents for pilots aged 50-59 years, and this peak is observed among experienced pilots with more than 5,000 hours of flight time. For pilots aged 40-49 years, half of the accidents occurred among aircraft commanders with 1,000 … 5,000 hours of flight time, and about one third among pilots with less than 500 hours of flight time.

It was revealed that for domestic general aviation in 2020, the main causes of aviation accidents were such elements of human factor as piloting errors associated with deficiencies in training and little flight experience; loss of spatial orientation in weather conditions that do not comply with visual flight rules, when the underlying surface is white, when caught in a snow whirlwind, as well as a collision with power line wires.

Keywords: aviation, flight safety, industrial safety, human factor, pilot age.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_37

Anatoly G. Guziy

Anastasia A. Shpakovskaya

Alexey S. Muravyov

Abstract. The present paper delves into the challenge of implementing international flight safety standards into the Russian regulatory framework governing the establishment, application, and refinement of aviation safety management systems (SMS) in the civil aviation sector in Russia. It underscores the reliance of SMS regulatory adherence on the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) set forth by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The paper conducts an examination of prevailing discrepancies, indeterminacies, and ambiguities in delineating core terms and concepts within the English and Russian renditions of ICAO SARPs documentation. Furthermore, it offers an evaluation of the implementation hurdles associated with SARPs in regulatory documentation pertaining to civil aviation flight safety in Russia. The deficiencies in the regulatory infrastructure for flight safety in Russia are substantiated. Drawing from practical insights gained in formulating and improving regulatory and methodological support for SMS in prominent Russian airlines, the paper proposes measures to mitigate inaccuracies and uncertainties in the integration of ICAO SARPs editions within the Russian regulatory framework for aviation industry service providers.

Keywords: international standards, regulatory support, implementation, methodological support, aviation safety, risk, factors.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_57

Vitalii D. Rubtsov

Elena I. Trusova

Alexandra L. Rybalkina

Abstract. The authors propose a method of predicting the probability of occurrence of dangerous gusts of wind in the runway area during landing of an aircraft, based on the use of the distribution of absolute maximum wind gusts during the observation period. The method makes it possible to design an aircraft landing system that allows, depending on the probability of wind gusts, to make various management decisions: permission to land, sending the aircraft on a go-around, or sending it to an alternate airfield.

Keywords: gusts of wind, probabilistic description, flight safety, aircraft, theory of emissions of random processes, recording device on a probing beam.

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Aircraft, aircraft engines and methods of their operation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_67

Gennady V. Kovalenko

Artem A. Fedorov

Andrey V. Fedorov

Abstract. The paper provides an overview of the components of the pilot model used to design the flight control system which focuses on the physiological aspects and aspects of manual control. The structure of a multi-element system is used which allows the authors to reveal the totality of interaction between the pilot and the aircraft during the implementation of manual control. Manual control is the most difficult process when performing an aircraft flight and requires a lot of experience and high pilot skills. The sensory and intersensory models of the pilot–aircraft system are considered. The application of these models requires knowledge of the mechanisms and processes that are directly involved in the development of the pilot’s spatial orientation when controlling the aircraft manually. The development of a method and a mathematical model for the formation of spatial orientation skills is an urgent task of scientific research.

Keywords: pilot, model, spatial disorientation, aircraft, sensory organs, human factor.

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Air traffic monitoring and management systems

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_78

Vyacheslav V. Erokhin

Boris V. Lezhankin

Dmitry Y. Urbansky

Abstract. The accuracy of aircraft position measurements directly affects flight safety and is one of the most important tactical characteristics. The introduction of new advanced surveillance tools, such as multi-position surveillance systems (MPSS), can significantly increase the level of flight safety, as well as improve the efficiency of airspace use. The authors consider the task of improving the quality of MPSS functioning and increasing the accuracy of estimating the aircraft coordinates. The accuracy of position-fixing is determined by the error in measuring the time of signal arrival under the influence of noise and interference. Random disturbances must be taken into account to ensure high-quality MPSS operation. This is achieved by applying the methods of Kalman filtration theory. Therefore, to solve the problem of estimating the MPSS state variables, it is proposed to use a Kalman filter (KF). The effectiveness of using the Kalman filter depends on the adequacy of mathematical models and real processes. Model inaccuracies associated with the functioning of navigation systems lead to KF divergence. The paper presents the results of theoretical studies and simulating the MPSS functioning processes based on the implementation of the KF algorithm.

Keywords: Kalman filter, divergence of the filtering process, estimation algorithm, multi-position surveillance system, random disturbances, aircraft.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_90

Andrey S. Kalintsev

Abstract. In the first part of the article, the author proposed a modified method for confirming the ADS-B data, which estimates and compares the aircraft flight altitude: barometric altitude (received from a barometric pressure altimeter) and geometric altitude (received from a GNSS receiver). In the presented work, application of the modified technique for confirming the ADS-B geometric altitude data is simulated. When simulating, real data were used which were received from the ADS-B ground station located at the Mezen aerodrome. Real values of pressure and temperature were used. The methodology takes into account the values of quality indicators of ADS-B data. For one flight on local airlines, an excess of the permissible interval was shown (GNSS data, according to the methodology, are not confirmed). The result obtained is consistent with the geometric vertical accuracy parameter GVA. To verify the modified method of the temperature determination according to geometric and barometric altitude, the obtained temperature data are compared with the values of the ECMWF forecasting model. The average RMSE value for 11 flights was 1.58ºС. For climbing aircraft the maximum RMSE value was 1.93ºС, for landing aircraft, maximum RMSE = 2.7°C.

Key words: flight safety, ADS-B, model, local airlines, barometric altitude, geometric altitude, TAS, IAS.

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Aviation radio communication, radiolocation, radio navigation and methods of their operation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_113

Boris V. Lezhankin

Vyacheslav V. Erokhin

Nikolay P. Malisov

Abstract. In real conditions of application for high-precision positioning and trajectory control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) when flying along a route, insufficient noise immunity and operating accuracy of satellite navigation system receivers are manifested. In this regard, it is relevant to study possible methods and means of providing high-precision navigation definitions based on complex processing of signals from various sources of navigation information when solving the problem of displaying a UAV in a terminal set.

The article presents the results of developing a UAV trajectory control algorithm based on methods of statistical optimal control theory, the implementation of which will improve the accuracy of maintaining a given flight route. The characteristics for analyzing errors in maintaining the flight path are considered.

The results of modeling and research of the characteristics of the trajectory control algorithm for various configurations of navigation information sources (NIS) are presented and the dependence of the accuracy of maintaining a given UAV flight route on errors in estimating navigation parameters is shown.

Keywords: trajectory control, unmanned aerial vehicle, Letov-Kalman algorithm, sources of navigation information, automatic dependent surveillance.

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Issues, prospects of development and application of unmanned aircraft systems

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_128

Roman O. Arefyev

Oleg N. Skrypnik

Natalya G. Arefyeva (Astrakhanceva)

Abstract. The paper proposes a method for assessing the actual accuracy of spatial stabilization of a DJI Air 2S quadcopter using its video camera and processing the resulting video sequences with a developed software package in the mode of hovering over a reference object. The software package was implemented using the OpenCV library in Python. To register deviations of stabilization systems from a given position, it is proposed to use a reference field with known geometric parameters, information about which is entered into the processing algorithm. The main task of the software package is to identify the boundaries of the reference field and measure the geometric sides in pixels which allows you to determine the center of the field and measure its deviation relative to the center of the image as well as determine the height of the unmanned aerial vehicle flight. In the work the height measurement algorithm was tested. This technique is used to evaluate the accuracy of quadcopter stabilization with various combinations of navigation sensors used for this purpose. A statistical analysis of the obtained results was carried out and conclusions were drawn about compliance with the characteristics of positioning accuracy declared by the manufacturer using optical obstacle avoidance systems and satellite navigation systems.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), stabilization systems, technical vision, GNSS.

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Intelligent Aviation Systems

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_146

Aleksandr Yu. Yurin

Yuri V. Kotlov

Abstract. This paper discusses the results of a project to create an intelligent decision support system for troubleshooting aircraft failures and malfunctions by the Aviation Technical Assistant (AviaTekhPom). The main implemented algorithms, functions, architecture and prototype of the system are described, as well as the further direction of the project development. The Sukhoi Superjet power supply system was chosen as the target object for testing solutions. The current version of the system provides processing of information presented in cards of accounting of malfunctions of aviation equipment and troubleshooting manuals, based on approaches known as rule-based reasoning and case-based reasoning. For preparation and modification of knowledge bases, a tabular formalism of knowledge representation is used, which provides the possibility of using publicly available tabular editors and CSV format. The developed algorithms are implemented in the form of conceptual prototypes of a desktop application and a chatbot.

Keywords: AviaTekhPom, intelligent system, diagnostics of aircraft systems and complexes, power supply system, Sukhoi Superjet, desktop application, chat-bot.

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Transportation process management

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_157

Evgeny E. Vitvitsky

Roxana E. Shipitsyna

Abstract. The article presents one of the possible transport situations obtained by solving the routing problem. The article outlines an approach to executing the transportation plan obtained when solving the routing problem when using various methods of organizing cargo transportation and “Incoterms” conditions. The authors come to the conclusion that it is possible to use the territorial method of centralized transportation of goods by road in cities in modern practice.

Keywords: routing method, matrix of combined plans, transport situations, routes, transportation plan, centralized transportation, transport method.

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Problems and practice of technical education

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_166

Anatoly F. Penno

Yury P. Belovodsky

Abstract. This article discusses the issue of increasing the use of the visual aids of the educational process when studying aviation technology at a flight school. An analysis of the educational and methodological complex of the educational disciplines selected for the study was carried out. The contradictions between the increasing requirements for the training of an aviation specialist and the possibilities of its training in modern conditions are identified. The introduction of simulation dynamic 2D models into the training process of flight personnel is justified as a way of increasing the use of visual aids of educational material taught. A version of a computer program for creating 2D models is presented. Using the example of the author’s developments, the advantage of simulating dynamic 2D models in studying the design and operation of aircraft and engine systems and assemblies is shown.

An analysis of the results of the implementation of developed innovations to improve visual aids was carried out. An increase in the performance of cadets in theoretical training before flying the aircraft under study was recorded.

The recommendations for the development of 2D models and their use in the learning process are also offered.

Key words: aviation equipment, construction, operation, academic discipline, teaching, visual aids, simulated dynamic 2D models.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_183

Larisa I. Moskalyuk

Tatiana W. Korbmakher

Abstract. The article aims to consider the phonetic features of island Russian-German dialects of the Krasnoyarsk region. The research material was the author’s corpus of oral texts of culinary recipes recorded by digital audio recording during dialectological expeditions to the former German villages of the Krasnoyarsk region. General phonetic features of the studied High German dialects of the Germans of the Krasnoyarsk region (settlers from the Volga region and their descendants), reflected in the dialect texts of culinary recipes, transmit the features characteristic of the West Middle German dialect area with a Rhenish-Frankish basis. Consonantal changes illustrate the nature of the second (High German) movement of Germanic consonants of the specified dialect area.

The phonetic features of the German dialects of the Krasnoyarsk region, described in the article on the material of the culinary recipe texts, clarify the existing views about the current state of the island dialect language system, the description of which is important for further study of German dialectology and the theory of languages interaction.

Keywords: phonetic features, Russian Germans, culinary recipes, literary language, dialect, foreign language environment.

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Theoretical and practical issues of foreign languages teaching

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_195

Tatyana Yu. Portnova 

Abstract. The paper is continuation of the author’s works aimed at developing skills of technical students’ critical thinking at English lessons. The research subject includes provocative techniques which were tested when teaching English and Aviation English the first-fourth academic year students at MSTU CA, Irkutsk branch. The author analyses the positive, constructive potential and efficiency of provocations and demonstrates variants of using provocative techniques in learning situations. Various forms of provocations in educational environment are of certain research interest. Practical significance of the work is in developing exercises with the use of provocations on professionally oriented material for aviation specialists’ training.

Key words: critical thinking, provocation, Aviation English, emotions.

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State and law

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_206

Ekaterina Z. Sidorova

Evgeny G. Usov

Abstract. The field of education is very extensive and diverse. It includes various industries and directions. It is safe to say that the elements of the educational system, its participants somehow come into contact with various aspects of our life. Such an area of public relations as the sphere of criminal proceedings, which develops in connection with the commission of crimes by individual citizens, has not become an exception. In such cases, the guilty person is obliged to be justly punished. However, before such a punishment is imposed, the process of bringing a person to criminal responsibility established by law must take place. It is in this process that teachers and psychologists often take part. The purpose of this study is to address the legal status of a teacher participating in criminal proceedings and performing certain functions established by the legislator. It seems to the authors of this study that the appeal to the topic of the legal status of a teacher in criminal proceedings has not only theoretical, but also applied significance, since it gives citizens an idea of the role of a pedagogical worker in the field of criminal proceedings that develops in connection with the commission of a criminal offense by one or another person.

Keywords: teacher, minor, criminal proceedings, legal status, criminal liability, psychological assistance.

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