Coordinate systems and coordinate transformations in air navigation tasks

UDC 621.391:621.396 BBK 39.57-5

Skrypnik O. N.

Main types of coordinate systems used for solving air navigation tasks that are connected with the provision of aeronautical flight control and landing are examined in the article. The main requirements for coordinate systems are given.

Local (orthogonal, cylindrical and spherical) coordinate systems were studied, their advantages and disadvantages as well as areas of their application were highlighted. Direct and backward coordinate transformations between the local coordinate systems were shown.

The author shows distinctive features of global coordinate systems application which are connected with choosing the Earth’s figure model and its mathematical description problems. Basic information about the global terrestrial ellipsoids and their parameters is presented. The need to shift to the global terrestrial ellipsoid and global reference systems is demonstrated. Basic information about the ITRS and ITRF is given. Differences in determining an object’s space coordinates in these reference systems are described. Differences in the areas of application of PZ-90 and SK-2011systems as well as their prototypes WGS-84 and NAD-83 are specified.

The author considers peculiarities of global geodesic and geospheric (great-circle) coordinate systems, their advantages and disadvantages. Direct and backward coordinate transitions for global coordinate systems as well as expressions that link geocentric and topocentric coordinate systems are illustrated.

Key words: coordinate system, geoid, global terrestrial ellipsoid, coordinate transformations, a local coordinate system, a geodetic coordinate system, air navigation.

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