Категория: 05.00.00 — Techincal Sciences

Problems of civil aviation aircraft maintenance processes in expected operating conditions

UDK 629.7.036.3 BBK 39.15

Kirenchev A. G.

Danilenko N. V.

The article explores the contradictions, problems and methods of maintenance of modern civil aviation aircraft. After increasing the air flow through the engines, a qualitative transition of vortex formation before the air intakes to vortices of blurred intensity was established. New directions for aircraft ground operation when gas turbine engines are running on the ground are suggested. Within the framework of the requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization, Aviation Rules and Airworthiness Standards, the contradictions of aircraft ground operation and their engines are investigated and new additions to the Manual on technical operation and repair of aviation equipment in Russian civil aviation are outlined.

Keywords: vortex formation, the role of the underlying surface, gas turbine power plants, Coriolis force, air intake, technical operation, erosive wear.

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Circulation-vortex method of activating the wing thrust over the underlying surface

UDK 629.735.33.015 BBK 39.15

Kirenchev A. G.

Danilenko N. V.

The article deals with the issue of possible vortex activation of the working process of the wing thrust over the underlying surface. The useful effect of this working process can manifest itself in reducing the aircraft take-off and landing roll in the field of wing vortex interference with the airfield ground. The area of practical use could cover the lifting surfaces of hydrofoil crafts, ram-wing crafts and similar vehicles at low flight altitudes. The vortex activation of the wing thrust is based on the professor N.Ye.Zhukovskiy’s theorem about the wing lift and the mirror effect of the underlying surface proposed by Prandtl. The authors defined the physical and kinematic essence of interference of a linear vortex with a flat underlying surface.  The effect of that kind of vortex interference is represented due to comparison of auto-travel of vortex smoke rings having a different diameter and generated by an identical force pulse. The authors stated the fact of force interaction between a vortex ring and a hard flat wall which forms the basis of the method of vortex activation of the wing thrust capable of reducing the drag. As an object of theoretical research the linear infinitely long vortex of intensity Г = 2p  allowing the mathematical expression of Biot-Savart law to be reduced to the function of vortex velocity св = f (1/(2h)). The kinematic vortex characteristic is represented as a dependence of travel speed on the height of its position above the screen. The article identifies the main consequences of vortex and screen interference and areas of their application.

Key words: thrust, circulation of velocity Г, vortex interference, flat screen, vortex travel, vortex characteristic.

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One of the approaches to designing training for flight students based on the proficiency level and the performance of the flight task

UDK 656.7.071:658.386 BBK 74.570.22

Ustinov V. V.

Nazarov P. S.

The article offers methods and algorithms for recognizing maneuvers and aerobatic figures, scoring the quality of flight task performance, calculating the weight coefficients of the significance of flight parameters included in the evaluation criteria and the weight coefficients of flight elements included in the exercise, evaluating the level of training of flight students taking into account the quality of flight task performance and breaks in flight training.

Keywords: flight safety, flight training programs, training assessment, flight performance assessment, weight coefficients, pattern recognition, probability and statistics, normal distribution law of random variables.

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Automation of verifying the electronic display systems of modern and advanced objects of civil aviation

UDK 681.518.3 BBK 39.56

Mamkin E. M.

Krytsin A. V.

Ilyashenko D. M.

Dyachenko S. A.

Neretin E. S.

The authors analyzed the existing means of automation of verifying the software of aircraft onboard equipment. As the result they developed a software application which automates verifying the electronic display systems of modern and advanced civil airplanes as well as a testing technique for its use. The proposed solution allows reducing time and financial costs of system testing.

Key words: civil airplane, avionics, software, verification, image recognition, neural network.

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Architecture of the head-up display system for advanced civil airplanes

UDK 681.518.3 BBK 39.56

Dyachenko S. A.

Chufirin V. A.

Neretin E. S.

The paper presents the analysis of design principles for avionic complexes as well as for modern systems of indication in the cockpit. The authors developed the architecture of the head-up display system for advanced civil transport airplanes based on the concept of integrated module avionics. The applied approach allows shortening the time spent for development, tests and certification of an airplane as well as reducing the cost of aircraft operation and its weight and size.   

Key words: civil airplane, integrated module avionics, information presentation systems, systems of technical imaging, head-up display.

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The assessment of positioning error characteristics of combined GLONASS/GPS receivers

UDK 621.391:621.396 BBK 39.57-5 S66

Skrypnik O. N.

Arefyev R. O.

Arefyeva (Astrakhanceva) N. G.

The Global Navigation Satellite Systems `(GNSS) such as GLONASS (Russia) and GPS (the USA) systems find wide application in different fields including aviation. The growing demands of different users’ groups for accuracy and reliability of positioning can be met by solving a navigational problem with the use of all visible satellites which belong to different systems. This function was implemented in combined GNSS receivers, the research of performance features and positioning error characteristics of combined GLONASS/GPS receivers under different conditions of use and in different operational modes being relevant. The paper contains the results of natural experiments for investigation of positioning accuracy characteristics carried out with Geos-1M receiver. The experiments were performed in urban settings and in open terrain, in GLONASS and GPS operation modes of the receiver as well as in GLONASS/GPS combined mode. The experimental results were analyzed with the help of special software and algorithms of statistical manipulation. The obtained results allow assessing the main statistical characteristics of positioning errors and operational efficiency of the combined GNSS receiver under different conditions and in different operational modes. It can be used in practice for selecting a more efficient operational mode of the combined receiver for given conditions as well as for validating mathematical models of the positioning errors of SNS receivers.

Keywords: global navigation satellite system, GNSS, combined GNSS receiver, positioning accuracy.

*This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 19-08-00010 A).

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Technology of manufacturing some elements of a combustion chamber with a lateral system of reverse current area formation

UDK 621.45.022 BBK 39.55

Skorobogatov S. V.

Isaev A. I.

With each passing year, the operational requirements for the aircraft power plants are getting stricter and stricter. The combustion chamber as one of the main parts of an aircraft engine determines the indicators of its efficiency, reliability and environmental compatibility. The indicators can be improved due to taking into account the operational requirements at the stage of designing a combustion chamber.

As the concept of a combustion chamber with a lateral system of reverse current area formation implies presence of a number of thin-walled elements as well as double-curved surfaces, designing a chamber of such construction is a complex engineering problem.

The article describes a technology of manufacturing a combustion chamber of the desired design on an example of experimental model for a chamber stand.

Key words: combustion chamber, aircraft gas-turbine engine, operational features, technology of manufacturing, combustion process.

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Peculiarities of vortex interference of air intakes of gas-turbine power plants with the underlying surface

UDK 629.7.036.3 BBK 39.15

Kirenchev A. G.

Danilenko N. V.

The article considers the basic problems of vortex formation phenomenon and its natural and technogenic vortices. A new definition of vortex formation based on the physical essence of the working process is given. The mathematical foundation of the working process of vortex formation is presented with the use of Professor N. E. Zhukovsky’s theorem about the lifting force of the wing, as well as the equation for conservation of the gas movement energy and the Stokes theorem about the equality of the vortex tension and velocity circulation. Due to the analysis of the energy conservation equation the main factors of generation and accumulation of natural and technogenic vortices are revealed. The issue of the determining role of the underlying surface for forming effluent vortices of air intakes of aircraft gas-turbine propulsion systems is investigated. Influence of other external factors on the formation of technogenic vortices is noted. Classification of technogenic vortex formation and its vortices by the essence of the working process is given.

Keywords: vortex formation, technogenic vortices, vortex interference, the role of the underlying surface, gas turbine power plants, mathematical justification of Coriolis force vortices, air intake.

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Application of fuzzy logic in the development of expert systems for the assessment of professional competence

UDK 004.415.25 BBK 39.5

Bolshedvorskaya L. G.

Koryagin N. D.

The paper continues the series of publications aimed at developing the concept of architecture and composition of algorithms for an expert system intended to increase the efficiency of flight safety inspectors’ training. The research relevance and problem statement were published in “Analysis of applying the expert systems for diagnosis of troublesome areas in the system of training pilots for civil aviation” which revealed the factors affecting the formation of air staff’s professional competence. It was also noted that the most of the factors could be corrected during training. The research results presented in “Development of the architecture of an expert system for diagnosis of troublesome areas in air personnel’s training” are a follow-up for the study. The development of architecture for an expert system was based on amount and quality of the information about the results of air accidents investigations as well as the results of IT technological advances. The article points out that developing and implementing an expert diagnosis system should include several stages, the stage of knowledge evaluation being the most important.  This determines the relevance of the presented paper aimed to develop an efficient tool set for evaluating air staff’s knowledge and professional competence.

Key words: competence, civil aviation, fuzzy logics, expert systems.

 

*Publication was prepared within the framework of project No. 19-08-00028, supported by a grant from the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research (RFFI).

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Reduction of fuel consumption of outboard aircraft due to departure queue optimization

UDK 351.814.33 BBK 39.57

Knjazhskij A. Ju.

Pljasovskih A. P.

Bestugin A. R.

At busy airports aircraft departures are often delayed for a long time because of runway congestion. There is a known algorithm for optimizing the flow of outbound aircraft by the criterion of minimal runway-occupancy time which allows the average aircraft delay to be reduced and the runway capacity to be increased. In the paper the influence of the optimization algorithm on fuel consumption is analyzed and the economic benefit of its use is estimated. The modelling results showed optimization usefulness provided that the traffic is of high intensity.

Key words: air traffic control, capacity, runway, queue, Poisson flow, optimization.

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